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Growth of Power Sector

An Account of Growth of Power Sector in J&K State.

The State of Jammu & Kashmir is located in the Extreme North of India and is bound on the North by China and on the South by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and on the west by Pakistan. The State has a Population of 1,25,48,926 with 20,15,088 households (14,97,920 rural and 5,17,168 urban) as per 2011 Census.

The state is traversed by three main rivers i.e. Indus, Jhelum and Chenab. The Indus traverses through Ladakh, while the Jehlum flows through Kashmir and Chenab drains Jammu.

 

The average rainfall is about 100 Cms.

 

There are huge Glaciers in the state and the existence of high mountains with glaciers and rainfall makes it haven for hydel generation.

 

  As per preliminary survey an estimated potential of 16400 MWs of power has already been identified while the actual potential is much more.

 

The state of Jammu and Kashmir was the second, next only to the state of Mysore State in having Hydro Power, as far back as the 1st decade of this Century.

1.1 CHRONOLOGY OF IMPORTANT EVENTS IN J&K POWER SYSTEM

  • 1905
    • 4×1 MVA,2.3KV, 25 Hz Mohra Power Project commissioned
    • Head 430 feet (131 mtrs.), Pelton Wheel Turbine.
    • 2nd in India after Mysore
    • Constructed by General Electric (GE), America

Commissioned in 1905, Mohra Power Station served to light thousands of Kashmiri homes besides a small number of small industrial units comprising rice huskers, flour and oil grinders, bandsaws, silk reeling, weaving, spinning and the like. The only available route to Kashmir Valley those days was Jhelum Valley road ( Muzzafarabad road) along the banks of river Jhelum. Heavy equipments could be easily transported to Mohra on this road. No formal transport was available other than some horse driven carts and the only navigable area at that time was from Khannabal to Khadinyar.

 

25 Hz, AC power generated at 2300 Volts was stepped upto 30 kV for its transmission to Sopore, Braramulla and Srinagar. 30/2.3 kV Receiving Sub Stations were in operation at Silk Factory and Narwara in Srinagar, at Amargarh in Sopore and in Baramulla. 2.3 kV Supply was also available at Pampore, Pattan, Tangmarg and Gulmarg.

 

Mohra was the only source of power supply in Kashmir Valley till the year 1955. In June,1955, 2x3 MW Ganderbal Hydel Project was Commissioned. The Mohra however continued generating till July 1959 when it was struck by the unprecedented floods in Jhelum. The flood waters hit the Power plant, shearing its building longitudinally into two halves.

  • 1948
    • Work started for construction of Ganderbal Power plant

The Sindh Valley Multipurpose Project with its power plant at Ganderbal had been investigated in the forties. Civil works were entrusted to the Irrigation Department while its electric works were to be done by the then Electrical and Mechanical Department. Construction of Civil Works had been taken in hand in 1948. The electro-mechanical plant of 2x3 MW Capacity was ordered from M/s Associated Electrical Industries Calcutta who supplied the Electrical Equipment of M/s Metropolitan Vickers and matching Hydro Equipment made by Escherwyss, Switzerland.

 

  • 1954
    • Electrification in Anantnag, Khanabal, Bijbehara and Awantipora town started.
    • Extension of 33 kV transmission line from Srinagar to Anantnag.
    • 66 kV line (on wooden poles) from Pathankote (Punjab) Grid station to Canal (Jammu) sub station was commissioned.
    • A real boost to power availability in the state.
  •  1955
    • Ganderbal Project commissioned by the then President of India, Dr Rajendra Prasad.
    • Srinagar city was divided into two Zones , Zone 1 receiving 25 Hz, 230 V, 3O supply from Mohra and zone 2 receiving 50Hz, 400-230 V, 3O supply from Ganderbal .
  • 1957
    • A project report for adding 9 MW to Ganderbal Project was approved.
    • Mohra Power project was revived and its frequency was changed from 25 Hz to 50 Hz in order to meet the problem of severe over loading .
  • 1961
    • Additional 9 MW Units of Ganderbal project commissioned.
    • Old Mohra closed and abandoned.
    • Ganderbal was the lone source of power
  • 1962
    • New Mohra (9MW) commissioned and synchronized through 66 kV over head line (on wooden poles) with Ganderbal.
    • Local Grid to which two sources were connected came into existence for the first time in the state. (It was an extremely exciting event for the Engineers).
    • New 66kV transmission line from Sarna (Punjab) to Canal Sub Station (Jammu) on steel poles was commissioned.
    • New transmission line from Samba to Gladni
  • 1964
    • Mini Hydel project (2× 350 kW) at Rajouri commissioned
  • 1965
    • Mini Hydel project (2× 350 kW) at Bhaderwah commissioned
  • 1967-68
    • 132 kV Transmission line between Kalakote – Janipur (Jammu) and Chenani was constructed by Electric Department along with 22.5MVA, 132 / 66 kV Grid station at Janipora.
  • 1969-70
    • Three units (3×7.5 MW ) of Kalakote commissioned.
    • Grid operation became a reality in Jammu region
  • 1971-75
    • Chenani power plant ( 3×5 MW ) commissioned.
    • Parallel operation or synchronization with Punjab Grid between two generating station of state in Jammu on one side and Punjab on the other was established.
    • Jammu became surplus while Kashmir had shortage.
    • Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir Electricity Board in pursuance of J&K Electricity Supply Act 1971.
    • Upper Sindh–I (2×11.3 MW) commissioned.

 

  •  1976-80
    • A major event in the 1970s was interconnection of Kashmir and Jammu through 132 kV Udhampur Srinagar Double Circuit Line (CSTL). At Banihal Tunnel, one circuit was laid overhead crossing Pir Panchal Top and 2nd through Banihal Tunnel as Gas Filled Cables.
    • Advantages resulting from this interconnection:
      • Boosted generation Capability.
      • Stabilized the supply frequency .
      • Reliable Power Supply.
      • Increased efficiency of the system.
      • Faults reduced to a large extent.
    • Formation of POWER DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT headed by the Commissioner and Secretary to Govt.
  • 1981-84
    • 2X120 MVA, 220/132kV Grid Sub Station at Udhampur Commissioned.
  • 1985-1990
    • 120MVA, 220/132kV and 2X20 MVA, 132/33kV Grid Sub Station at Gladni (Jammu) commissioned on energization of single circuit Sarna – Gladni Transmission Line.
    • Salal HEP (Phase-I) of 345 MW commissioned in 1987.
    • Stakna (4 MW) at Leh commissioned.
    • Salal - Gladni 220 kV Single Circuit Transmission line no. 1 and line no. 2 energized.
    • Gladni - Miran Sahib 132 kV Double Circuit line and Grid Sub Station at Bari Brahamna and Miran Saheb commissioned.
    • 35 MVAR Shunt at Pampore (supplied by Crompton & Greaves).
    • Series Capacitor Bank at Wanpoh (supplied by BHEL). These measures were taken to increase the transmission capacity of 132 kV CSTL from 60 MW to 155 MW.
    • With the Commissioning of Salal ( HEP) which was thought to make up for the power deficit of the Kashmir Valley also, department felt handicapped because in spite of surplus power in Jammu region there was no adequate transmission facilities to Kashmir Valley in addition to Udhampur-Bemina 132-KV line, which could not carry more than 70 MW , while as deficit in the valley was around 300 MW.
    • To overcome this problem, various options were considered like
      • Reactive compensation (installation of 33 kV shunt capacitors at various Grid Stations and Series compensation (Installation of Series Capacitor bank) of the line.
      • Changing this Double Circuit line to HVDC link, a study was undertaken by the Department and the choice fell on Compensation.
      • To manage the peak load by reviving Bemina Diesel or Gas Turbine.
      • Lower Jhelum Hydel Project (105 MW ) was commissioned.
  • 1990-2000
    • Karnah HEP (2 MW) commissioned in 1991.
    • 220kV Double Circuit Kishenpore – Pampore Transmission Line (KPTL) commissioned in 1996 to overcome constraints in power transmission to Kashmir Valley.
    • 345 MW Salal-II, commissioned in 1998.
    • 220 kV Double Circuit Kishenpore – Pampore Transmission Line (KPTL) commissioned in 1996 to overcome constraints in Power Transmission to Kashmir Valley. 220/132 kV Pampore Grid Station Commissioned in 1996.
    • 220/132/33 kV Grid station at Zainakote commissioned in 1998.
    • 480 MW, Uri-I alongwith its transmission system viz. 630MVA, 400/220 kV Wagoora Grid Sub Station and 400kV Uri-Wagoora line commissioned in 1997.
  • 2001-2011
    • USHP-II, 105 MW Power Project commissioned at Kangan
    • 400 kV Inter-regional Transmission Line between Kishenpur and Srinagar commissioned by PGCIL
    • First ever Tariff Order for electricity determined and issued by JKSERC in March 2007.
    • J&K PDD launched its website under URL: www.jkpdd.gov.in in 2007.
    • 390 MW Dulhasti Power Plant commissioned in 2007.
    • 450 MW Baglihar HEP commissioned in October, 2008.
    • Computerized billing of consumers of Jammu & Srinagar city completed in 2007-08.
    • 160 MVA,220/132 kV Barn Grid Sub Station commissioned in 2008.
    • 100MVA 132/33KV Grid station Bari-Brahmana-II Commissioned in 2008
    • 20 MVA , 132/33 kV Draba Grid Station commissioned in 2008.
    • 50MVA132/33 kV Grid Station Khanmoh Commissioned in April-2009
    • 50 MVA 132/33 kV Gangyal Grid Station Commissioned in March-2009
    • 50MVA132/33 kV Grid Station Tethar Commissioned in Oct -2009
    • 50MVA132/33 kV Grid Station Mahanpur Commissioned in Aug -2009
    • Second Tariff Order for electricity issued by JKSERC in Sep.2009.
    • Third Tariff Order issued by SERC in April 2010
    • Electricity Act 2010 notified by GoJ&K in April 2010
    • 120 MWs HEP SEWA II on Ravi Basin commissioned in September 2010.
  •  2011-12
    • 320 MVA,220/132 Grid station Mirbazzar commissioned in 12/2011
    • 320 MVA+100MVA,220/132/33 Grid station Budgam commissioned in 12/2011
    • 320 MVA+100MVA,220/132/33 Grid station Bishnah commissioned in 2011
    • 120 MVA+20MVA,220/132/33 Grid station Ramban commissioned in 2011
    • 50MVA 132/33 Grid station Lissar commissioned in 5/12/-2011
    • 50MVA 132/33 Grid station Vilgam commissioned in 02/2011
    • 50MVA 132/33 Grid station Magam commissioned in 02/2012
    • 50MVA 132/33 Grid station Katra commissioned in 2011
    • 20MVA 132/33 Grid station Chandak commissioned in 2/2012
    • 50MVA 132/33 Grid station Pounichak commissioned in 2/2012
    • 1.26 MW HEP Sanjak on Indus Basin commissioned in September 2011.
    • 4thTariff Order issued by SERC in April 2012.